The book is innovative not only in terms of its topic but in terms of its methodological approach, which combines a close reading of various European accounts with the use of scholarship on native North Americans. According to Trexler, these processes of establishing hierarchies through genderization would go on to structure domestic power relations between men--as manifested, for example, in the ancient institution of "homosexual marriages," whereby men of authority, patriarchs, not only received sexual and economic services from young men but reinforced their power by publicly displaying their retinues of dependent and therefore effeminized boys in processions. Turning to the native American world, the author finds a remarkably similar pattern of gendered dominance and submission. Are human desires not socially constructed? In chapter seven, Trexler does account for why he dismisses the claims made by the historiographical tradition that emerged in the mid-sixteenth century and that downplayed, even denied, the practice of sodomy among the Aztecs and Incas. Martinez on Trexler, 'Sex and Conquest: Despite Trexler's insightful discussion of sex, gender, and power in conquest, there are several theoretical and methodological problems with the study. The book not only bridges European and American analytical fields but links the topic of homosexual practices to broader theoretical questions, such as the relationship between gendered sexual violence and power; between sexual discourses and the political order. Objectives and Arguments The main objective of Sex and Conquest is "to describe and analyze American homosexual practices and the male transvestism often associated with them, as the Iberians heard of these practices during their original contacts with the many peoples of what would come to be called Latin America" p. The main argument of the book is that much of the homosexual behaviour and transvestism encountered by the Iberians resulted from social constraints among the American tribes themselves. Colonial accounts by Caveza de Vaca, Lopez de Gomara, and Le Moyne de Morges, among others, provide Trexler with examples of gendering behaviors in the conquest activities of groups such as the Caribs, the Tumucua, and the Texcocans. The ease with which Trexler moves across space and time to shed light on male homosexual behavior and transvestism among native Americans not only implies that cultural and historical specificity does not matter, but assumes that native American cultures have similar systems of meaning and representation. Furthermore, through an elaborate analysis of the functions of berdache in Incan temples including a discussion of the link between Andean religious corporal expressions and sexual postures and a study of art objects depicting anal intercourse from the eighth century Moche culture of northwestern Peru , Trexler tries to show that transvested boys were religious resources for lords and that the publicly performed anal rapes of the young berdache were acts of domination that were ultimately intended to depict the physical subjection of young men to religious lords p.